Protocol (Network)

Thursday, January 15, 2009

A network protocol defines rules and conventions for communication between network devices. Protocols for computer networking all generally use packet switching techniques to send and receive messages in the form of packets.

Network protocols include mechanisms for devices to identify and make connections with each other, as well as formatting rules that specify how data is packaged into messages sent and received. Some protocols also support message acknowledgement and data compression designed for reliable and/or high-performance network communication. Hundreds of different computer network protocols have been developed each designed for specific purposes and environments.
Internet Protocols
The Internet Protocol family contains a set of related (and among the most widely used network protocols. Besides Internet Protocol (IP) itself, higher-level protocols like TCP, UDP, HTTP, and FTP all integrate with IP to provide additional capabilities. Similarly, lower-level Internet Protocols like ARP and ICMP also co-exist with IP. These higher level protocols interact more closely with applications like Web browsers while lower-level protocols interact with network adapters and other computer hardware.
Routing Protocols
Routing protocols are special-purpose protocols designed specifically for use by network routers on the Internet. Common routing protocols include EIGRP, OSPF and BGP.
How Network Protocols Are Implemented
Modern operating systems like Microsoft Windows contain built-in services or daemons that implement support for some network protocols. Applications like Web browsers contain software libraries that support the high level protocols necessary for that application to function. For some lower level TCP/IP and routing protocols, support is implemented in directly hardware (silicon chipsets) for improved performance.



Tuesday, January 13, 2009

Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low-power radio communications to wirelessly link phones, computers and other network devices over short distances. The name Bluetooth is borrowed from Harald Bluetooth, a king in Denmark more than 1,000 years ago.

Bluetooth technology was designed primarily to support simple wireless networking of personal consumer devices and peripherals, including cell phones, PDAs, and wireless headsets. Wireless signals transmitted with Bluetooth cover short distances, typically up to 30 feet (10 meters). Bluetooth devices generally communicate at less than 1 Mbps.

Bluetooth networks feature a dynamic topology called a piconet or PAN. Piconets contain a minimum of two and a maximum of eight Bluetooth peer devices. Devices communicate using protocols that are part of the Bluetooth Specification. Definitions for multiple versions of the Bluetooth specification exist including versions 1.1, 1.2 and 2.0.

Although the Bluetooth standard utilizes the same 2.4 Ghz range as 802.11b and 802.11g, Bluetooth technology is not a suitable Wi-Fi replacement. Compared to Wi-Fi, Bluetooth networking is much slower, a bit more limited in range, and supports many fewer devices.

As is true for Wi-Fi and other wireless technologies today, concerns with Bluetooth technology include security and interoperability with other networking standards. Bluetooth was ratified as IEEE 802.15.1.

Also Known As: Blue Tooth


What is Wireless Computer Networking?

Wireless networks utilize radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain communication channels between computers. Wireless networking is a more modern alternative to wired networking that relies on copper and/or fiber optic cabling between network devices.

A wireless network offers advantages and disadvantages compared to a wired network. Advantages of wireless include mobility and elimination of unsightly cables. Disadvantages of wireless include the potential for radio interference due to weather, other wireless devices, or obstructions like walls.

Wireless is rapidly gaining in popularity for both home and business networking. Wireless technology continues to improve, and the cost of wireless products continues to decrease. Popular wireless local area networking (WLAN) products conform to the 802.11 "Wi-Fi" standards. The gear a person needs to build wireless networks includes network adapters (NICs), access points (APs), and routers.


Networking is your way to success

Tuesday, January 6, 2009

Any expert will tell you that networking is one of the best ways to advance your career, and it's also a good source of support for everyday job concerns. Employers, especially those with good diversity programs, also recognize the value of networking, and there are official -- as well as unofficial -- networks for virtually every group.

"A lot of people of color find these networks especially important," says Cornelia Gamlem, president of the GEMS Group, a human resources consulting firm in Herndon, Virginia. "They can be a kind of balance in understanding whether a situation is unique or if it's something other people have gone through as well. [Networks] can help people avoid that feeling of being isolated and overcome problems all on their own."

But remember that how you network is just as important as whether you network. Here are some rules to network by:

Get an Early Start

The sooner you start creating a network, the faster you'll progress in your career. Many professional societies have student chapters in colleges and universities. Making connections early will give you a head start on your job search. Keep your eyes open for networking opportunities as soon as you've landed a job.

Look Before You Leap

"Be careful of whom you ally yourself with," warns Mary Jane Sinclair, president of MJS Associates in Morristown, New Jersey. "They may be using you to advance an issue." Sinclair uses an example of a young college grad who joined an in-company women's network. However, rather than advancing the members' cause, this network was more interested in taking on management. "This woman was viewed by management as a troublemaker," Sinclair says. Once you've taken a job, carefully find the networks that will be most beneficial to you and your career.

If at First You Don't Succeed, Try Again

Unfortunately, there isn't always an obvious network to join. For instance, if you're an African American woman in a sea of white colleagues, it may not be easy to align yourself with others in the company. See if there's a local professional organization with African American members. Or seek out people in your community. Don't just limit yourself to racial or gender categories.

Cast a Wide Net

"Look for support wherever you find it," Sinclair says. "Networking really works best when the group's common interest isn't just race or gender, but the success of each member in the group." Establishing a broad network enables you to turn to different groups, depending on your professional challenges. "Without a broad-based network, there's no one to turn to in a time of crisis," Sinclair says. "The broader you cast your net, the broader your catch will be."

Justify Full


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